This course discusses the importance of conservation and/or protection of environmental and biological components to mankind and several ecosystems. The relationship between man and the environment along with their related problems will be discussed from local and global perspectives. The importance of biological diversity and its relationship with environmental factors and impact of human activities on them will be put forward. Methods of conservation by in-situ or ex-situ will also be discussed, followed by strategic approaches in environmental management encompassing the protection of biological diversity. The final part of this course will touch on several variables in conservation biology such as knowledge on taxonomy, the existing rules and regulations and influence of politics on the management initiatives.