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The course is designed to study the physio-chemical characteristics of biomolecules and the role of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids in cell function. Enzymology, especially kinetics and the effect of cofactors and coenzymes will be discussed. Bioenergetics, especially the structure of the mitochondrion, tricarboxylic acid cycle, electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation as well as photosynthesis will be explained briefly. Essential pathways metabolism such as glycolysis, β-oxidation of fatty acids, lipogenesis, catabolism of amino acids, urea cycle etc. will be considered.

M.K. and Farrell, S.O. 2006. Biochemistry, 5 th Ed. Thomson Brooks/Cole, United States.
Conn, E.E., Stumpf, P.K., Bruening, G. Doi, R.H. 1995. Asas Biokimia. Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, Kuala Lumpur
Voet, D. and Voet, J.G. 1997.
Biochemistry John Wiley and Sons, New York
Zubay, G.L., Parson, W.W. and Vance, D.E. 1995 . Principles of Biochemistry, W.C. brown Publisher, United Kingdom

This course will introduce students to microbiology. It covers topics such as bacterial structure, morphology and bacterial cell movement. Bacterial growth and nutrition so as other microbes such as fungi and protist will be discussed. This course will also look into the history and diversity of the microorganisms and also discussing on its modern outlook and its importance in biomedical, biotechnology, food industry, and public health.

Madigan, M.T., Martinko, J.M. and Parker, J. 2002. Brock Biology of Microorganisms. 10 th Prentice Hall. New Jersey.
Prescott. L.M., Harley, J.P. and Kelin, D.A. 2004. Microbiology. McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Boston
Tortora, G.J., Funke, B.R. and Case, C.L. 2003 . Microbiology: An Introduction. 8 th Ed. Benjamin Cummings. San Francisco

SY10602 GENETICS This course is designed to give an introduction to various principles in genetics such as Mendelian Law of genetic inheritance, gene interaction, epistasis, sex linkage and determination, crossing, inbreeding, heterosis and environmental effect on genetics. It also discusses genetics application and mechanism in race and species diversification formation. In addition, variation at the population level is investigated in population genetic. Subsequently, mechanism that underlies variation at the species or population level is discussed in the evolutionary genetics which will be covered at the end of the course.

Itam Sulaiman dan Hazli Abdul Muid. 2002. Konsep Genetik. Edisi Ketiga. Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Kuala Lumpur.
Gardner, E.J., Simmons, M.J and Snustad, D.P. 1991. Principles of Genetics. 8 th. Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, USA.
Russell, P.J. 1998. Genetics. 5 th. Edition. The Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co, California, USA.

The course is a general introduction on biotechnology. Aspects in the classical and modern biotechnology will be described. The roles of molecular biology in understanding biological processes at the cellular level and in exploiting animal, microorganisms and plant cells for the purposes of agriculture, health and medicine will be given a major emphasis.
Acquaah, G. 2004. Understanding Biotechnology. Pearson. Prentice Hall.
Barnum, S.R. 2005. Biotechnology: An introduction. Thomson, Brooks/Cole Publication
Bougaize, D., Jewell, T.R. and Buiser, R.G. 2000. Biotechnology; Demystifying the Concept. Benjamin-Cummings Publication
Hartwell, L., Hood, L., Goldberg, M.L., Reynolds, A.E., Silver L.M., and Veres, R.C. 2004 Genetics: From Genes to Genomes. 2 nd Ed. McGraw Hill
Karp, G. 2005. Cell and Molecular Biology: Concept and Experiments. 4 th Ed. Wiley and Sons Ltd.
Lewin, B. 2004. Genes VIII. Oxford University Press, Oxford
Primrose, S.B. 1994. Molecular Biotechnology. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford
Watson, J.D., Gilman, M., Witkowski, J., Zoeller, M. 1992. Recombinat DNA. W.H. Freeman & Company, New York
Weaver, R.F. and Hendrick, P.W., 1997. Genetics. Wm. C. Brown Publishers, Chicago
This course is designed to understand the genetic flow of information at the molecular level. The structure of DNA and RNA as well as chromosome, chromatin and nucleosome will be covered. The mechanism of DNA mutation, repair, recombination and transposition inside the genome will be explained. Further, three main processes that leads to gene expression namely the DNA replication, transcription and translation on both prokaryotes and eukaryotes systems will be elucidated. Major signals and factors involved in gene regulation of the above three processes will also be discussed.
Brown, T.A. 1999. Genomes. John Wiley & Sons.UK.
Brown, T.A. 1992. Genetics: A Molecular Approach. Chapman & Hall Publishers, London, U.K.
Levin, B. 2004. Genes VIII. Oxford University Press Inc. New York, USA
Seidman, L.A. and Moore, C.J. 1999. Basic Laboratory, Methods for Biotechnology: Textbook & Laboratory Reference. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA
Watson, J.D., Baker, T.A., Bell, S.P., Gann, A., Levine, M. and Losick, R. 2004. Molecular Biology of the Gene. 2 nd Ed. Cold Spring Harbor Press, Benjamin Cummings, USA
Weaver, R.F. 2003. Molecular Biology. 2 nd Ed. McGraw-Hill Inc. New York, USA
Basic concepts of totipotency in plant cells and the lack of totipotency in animal cells will be explained. Universal phenomena in somaclonal variation will be explained in the context of plant tissue cultures. Plant cell, tissue and organ cultures will be discussed based on: callus and cell suspension cultures, haplogenesis, somatic cells hybridization, embryogenesis, clonal propagation (micropropagation) using cells and organs. Lectures on animal cell culture will emphasize on the applications of the technique in various research. Examples are the use of animal cell cultures in producing monoclonal antibody in production of various protein therapies. 
Bhojwani, B.B. (ed) 1990. Plant Tissue Culture: Applications and Limitations. Elsevier, Amsterdam
Bhojawani, S.S. and Razdan, M.K. Plant Tissue Culture: Theory and Practice. Elsevier Science Ltd. Amsterdam
Bonga, J.M. and Von Aderkas, P. 1992. In vitro Culture of Trees. Kluwer Academic PublishersDavis, J.M. (ed.) 1994. Basic Cell Culture: A Practical Approach. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
Doyle, A. and Griffiths, J.B. 1997. Mammalian Cell Culture. Essential techniques. John Wiley & Sons. Chishester
Hopkins, W.G. and Huner, N.P.A. 2004. Introduction to Plant Physiology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Philip, P.D. (ed.) 1990. Plant Cell Line Selection Procedures and Application. VCH. Weinheim.
Trigiano, R.N. and Gray, D.J. 2000. Plant Tissue Culture Concepts and Laboratory Exercises 2 nd Ed. CRC Press
Vasil, I. K. and Thorpe, T.A. (ed.) 1994. Plant Cell and Tissue Cultures. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
This course examines the chemistry and function played by macromolecules in the cell, as well as that of water and pH buffering systems. The course focuses on the structure and function of important biomolecules (amino acids, peptides, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids), as well as cellular structures (organelles and membranes). The biochemistry of cell signalling pathways, cell cycle, cell division and cell death processes. The role nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) plays in cell function (replication and repair, transcription, translation). Post-translational modification of proteins and introduction to bioinformatics as well as proteomics will be included in this course.
Bergethon , P.R. and Simons, E.R. 1990. Biophysical Chemistry. Molecules to Membrane. Springer-Verlag
 Freifelder, D. 1982. Physical Biochemistry. Applications to Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2 nd Ed. W.H. Freemen and CO.
Van Holde, K.E. Johnson, W.C. and Ho, P.S. 2000. Principles of physical Biochemistry. 2 nd Ed. Prentice-Hall
This course encompasses the basics of molecular cellular functions by stressing on the cellular motility, intracellular transportation, and membranous and cellular communication. Students will be lectured on cellular communication between cells, cell cycle and processes of cell division and the related signals. Several other important topics are functions of cellular membrane and organelles, protein targeting and transportation, signals transduction, functions of cytoskeletons, motility, gene regulation in cell division and cell growth and its relevance with cancer.
Essential Cell Biology , 2 nd Ed. Albert, Bray, Hopkin, Johnson, Lewis, Ralf, Robert, Walter. Garland Science 2004
Molecular Biology of the Cell , 4 th Ed. Albert, Johnson, Lewis, Ralf, Robert, Walter. New York, Academic Press, 2002.
Cell and Molecular Biology: Concepts and Experiments, 4th ed. Gerald Karp. Wiley Publishing Co., 2005
This course is designed to meet the challenge of understanding the study of immunology and virology. Both fields are considered important nowadays since the emerging outbreak of some deadly viruses throughout the world such as the Mad Cows disease, SARS virus and very recent the Bird’s flu virus. Students will be uncovered to the principles of immunology, vaccine theory, antibody structures, and theory of clonal selection, immune response, autoimmune diseases and hypersensitivity. Applications of antibodies for diagnosis and therapy are also discussed. 
Tizard, I.R. (1995).  Immunology. 4th edn. Sauders.
Golub, E.S. (1987).  Immunology. A Synthesis. Sinsuer Associates.
Jacqueline, S. (2002). Essentials of Immunology & Serology. Delmar, Thomson Learning.
Roitt, I, Brostoff, J, Male, D. (1998) Immunology, 5 th Edition, Mosby International Ltd.
The course introduces the basic concepts in biochemical engineering. It is suitable for a student with little or no formal training in life sciences and hence, will focus on the engineering aspects of biological systems. The syllabus covers major metabolic pathway, cell growth and product formation, stoichiometry of microbial growth, kinetics of substrate utilization, biomass production, transport in bioprocess system, bioreactor system, bioreactor design, product recovery and purification and the application of bioprocesses in biological system.
Bailey, J.E. and Ollis, D.F. 1986. Biochemical Engineering: Fundamentals. 2 nd Ed. McGraw-Hills Inc., Singapore
Shuler, M.L. and Kargi, F. 2002. Bioprocesses Engineering: Basic Concept. Prentice Hall PTR, NJ, USA
This course is designed to equip students with the basic instrumentation and application of some major equipment in a common biotechnology lab. The lecture will be divided into four basic concepts namely the separation of biomolecules and spectroscopy, gene delivery equipments, DNA labeling and gene analyzer tools.
In the separation of biomolecules, students will learn on some basic concepts of chromatography. In addition, the concept of spectroscopy will be explained using UV, atomic, and fluorescence spectroscopy. In the gene delivery section, students will investigate some basic equipment used to insert a desired gene into plant cells such as biolistic gun and electroporator. Apart from that, students will be introduced to equipment for cryopreservation and CO 2 incubator. In gene labeling section, students will study the basic concepts of DNA labeling and radioactivity measurements using Geiger counter, Liquid Scintillation Counter and autoradiography. In the last section of gene analyzer, concepts of DNA sequencing will be studied using the manual and automated machine as well as the microarray systems.
Skoog, P.A., West, D. M., Holles, F.J., Crouch, S.R. 2004. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. 8 th. Ed. Thomson Learning, USA.
Stephenson, F. H. 2003. Calculations for Molecular Biology and   Biotechnology. Academic Press, Elsevier Science (USA).
Reed, R., Holmes, D., Weyers, J and Jones, A. 1998. Practical Skill in Biomolecular Sciences. Addison Wesley Longman Ltd. UK.
Saunders, G.C., Parker, H.C. 1999. Analytical Molecular Biology-Quality and Validation. Royal Science of Chemistry. UK
Rickwood, D and Hames B.D. 1990. Gel Electrophoresis of Nucleic Acids. A Practical Approach. 2 nd. Ed. Oxford University Press. UK
Janson, J. and Ryden, L. 1989. Protein Purification Principles. High Resolution Methods and Application. VCH Publishers, USA.
Skoog, P.A. Holles, F.J., Nieman, T.A. 1998. Principles of Instrumental Analysis. 6 th. Ed. Harcourt Brace College Publishers, USA.
The course is divided into 3 main sections. The first section discusses bioethics issue in biotechnology such as human cloning for the purpose of obtaining children and for medical purposes. Discussion will be focussing on the need for cloning itself from the aspects of morality, ethics and main religion in the world. In section two, students will be introduced to Malaysian Biosafety Act 2007 and the roles of National Biosafety Comission in protecting human health, animal and plant, environment as well as biological diversity in Malaysia. In section three the definition, similarity and differences between copyright, intellectual property and patent will be discussed in detail. Also the procedure and requirement to obtain a patent and some examples of patent in Malaysia also be explained.  
Richmond, J.Y. and McKinney, R.W. 1999. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (4 th Edition). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington.
Seiler, J.P. 2005. Good Laboratory Practice – the Why and the How (2 nd Edition). Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, New York
World health Organization (2004). Laboratory Biosafety Manual (3 rd Edition).
Shepard, H.L. 2008 The Complete Guide to Patents, Copyrights, and Trademarks: What You Need to Know Explained Simply. Atlantic Publishing Company (FL)
The course will discuss advanced selected topics of fermentation pathway in microbes, traditional and industrial fermentations including solid substrate fermentation, sterile production of primary and secondary metabolites, and therapeutic recombinant proteins. Biochemical engineering component of fermentation system will also be introduced.
Alba, S., Humphrey, A.E. and Millis, N.F. 1973. 2 nd Ed. Biochemical engineering. Academic Press
Bailey, J.E. and Ollis, D.F. 1986. Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals. 2 nd Ed. McGraw-Hill Inc. Singapore
Crommelin, D.J.A. and Sindelar, R.D. (ed). 1997. Pharmaceutical Biotechnology. Harwood.
Demain, A.L. and Davies, J.E. 1999. 2 nd Ed. Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology. Amer. Soc. Microbiology Press
Shuler, M.L. and Kargi, F. 2002. Bioprocess Engineering: Basic Concept. Prentice Hall PTR, NJ. USA
Strohl, W.R. (ed.) 1997. 2 nd Ed. Biotechnology of Antibiotics. Marcel Dekker
Vandamme, E.J. (ed.) 1984. Biotechnology of Industrial Antibiotics, Marcel Dekker
Wang, D.I.C. et al. 1979. Fermentation and Enzyme Technology. John Wiley
The course is aimed to meet the challenge of virology in the modern era comprising various topics in virus taxonomy and ecology, infections and transmission between host and possible tools in medicine and biotechnology. Basic principles of virus isolation, detection and assay will be learned. In addition, students will be introduced to classification system applied in virology. At the end of the course some major concepts and examples of virus infections and replication will be investigated.
Ismail Ahmad. 1993. Pengenalan Virologi. Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Kuala Lumpur.
Jay A. Levy., Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat., Robert A. Ovens. 1994. Virology. 3rd. Edition. Prentice Hall, New Jerseys, USA. (UMS library)
Murphy, F.A., Fauquet, C.M., Bishop, D.H.L., Ghabrial, S.A., Jarvis, A.W., Martelli, G.P., Mayo, M.A and Summers, M.D. 1995. Virus Taxonomy Sixth Report of the International   Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Springer Verlag, New York, USA. (UMS library)
Van Regenmortel, M. H. V., C. M. Fauquet, D. H. L. Bishop, E. B. Carstens, M. K. Estes, S. M. Lemon, J. Maniloff, M. A., Mayo, D. J. Mcgeoch, C. R. Pringle, and R. B. Wickner. 2000.   
Virus Taxonomy. Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses. Seventh Report of the International Committee on taxonomy of viruses. Academic Press. San Diego.
The course discuss about the latest development in the field of biotechnology, including issues in cancer research development and  signal transduction using eukaryotic cells or higher organisms as models.  The latest technologies in plant cell culture, animal and stem cell would also be discussed based on the field in conservation biology and medical research, respectively.
Up-to -date Scientific Journals.
Weinberg, R.A. 2006. The Biology of Cancer. Garland Science
Gomperts, B. 2003. Signal Transduction. Elsevier.
This course is designed to meet the challenge of understanding on various diseases relating to the immune response. All of the ever emerging and dreadful diseases nowadays such as AIDS, cancer, autoimmune diseases are getting more and more mysterious. Full understanding of diseases such as cancer, HIV and virus infections; SARS and Bird’s flu, autoimmune diseases are still in their infancy, however, the relatedness of all these diseases to immune system is increasingly evident. Therefore, this course is designed mainly to disclose and enhance the understanding of the reactions in the immune system upon infections. Students will be exposed to some principles of the escape mechanisms of viruses or pathogens as well as the mechanisms of self tissues or cells reactivity.
Thomas Nogrady Medicinal Chemistry: A Biochemical Approach (Hardcover) 2Rev Ed edition (2000) Oxford University Press Inc, USA
Roderick Nairn and Matthew Helbert: Immunology for medical students (2003) Mosby International Ltd., China
This course is pioneered in order to introduce students with basic concepts in bioinformatics. Students will be learning about the basic concepts of data and database. Several major concepts in bioinformatics such as data mining, sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree construction will be learned in great detail. This course also emphasize on the use of computers and the web, as tools to analyze and represent large collections of biological sequence and structure data such as gene prediction, protein function and structure studies and analysis of whole genomes.
Krane, D.E and Raymer, M.L. 2003. Fundamental concepts of Bioinformatics. Pearson Education International.
Baxevanis A., Ouellette F.B.F. (Eds.) 1998. Bioinformatics: a practical guide to the analysis of genes and proteins.  John Wiley and Sons, New York.
Wilkins M.R., Williams K.L, Appel R.D., Hochstrasser D.H. (Eds.) 1997.   Proteome research: new frontiers in functional genomics. Sringer Verlag, Berlin.
Suhai S. (Ed.) 1994. Computational methods in genome research. Plenum Press, New York.
The course will discuss some aspects of the production, extraction and the use of enzymes (especially the amyolytic, cellolytic, ligninolytic, pectinolytic, and proteolytic enzymes) in industry. The potential use of enzymes as catalysts in the production of special chemical substances is to be emphasized. Immobilized enzyme formulations and the operation of reactors, which allow the sustained, continuous use of enzymes will be examined. Also, how coupling of the enzymes influences the kinetic properties of these biocatalysts will be explained. The course will survey some of the application of enzymes in industry and medicine. Also, one of the biggest advancement of enzyme technology is the development of biosensors. This will be discussed here.
Helmut, U. 1998. Industrial Enzymes and Their Applications. John Wiley & Sons
John, W.G. 1988. Techniques in Protein Chemistry VI. W. Atton Jones Centre, Ins, Lake Placid, New York.
Handbook of Analysis and Related Enzyme- Their Sources, Isolation Methods, Protein & Application. Pergamon. Oxford.
Langone, J.J. (Ed.) 1991. Methods in Enzymology, Vol. 202: Molecular Design and Modelling.
Reed, G. and Nayodawithana, T.W. 1993. Biotechnology Vol. 9: Enzymes, Biomass, Food and Feed, VCH. Weinhem
Tijssen, P. 1993. Practical and Theory of Enzyme Immunoassays. Elsevier. Amsterdam
Wolfgang, A. 1990. Enzyme in Industrial Production and Applications. Ed. Wiley-VCH
This course is about the application of DNA recombinant technology in the industrial and agricultural sense. The mechanisms being used in a plethora of cloning techniques in particular in plants and animals are to be discussed. Techniques and typed of vectors such as phage, plasmid, cosmid, and phagemid will also be discussed. This course will also encompass the mutational and recombinant mechanisms in detail so as the expression of the recombinant proteins in various systems such as the bacteria, animals, and plants. Techniques such as hybridization and cloning will also to be discussed.
Brown, T.A. 2002. Gene cloning and DNA analysis. 4 th Ed.
Chopra, V.L. and Nasim, A. 1990. Genetic engineering and biotechnology: Concepts, methods and applications. New Delhi. Oxford and IBH Pub.
Maniatis, T., Fritsch, E.F. and Sambrook, J. 1982. Molecular Cloning. Cold Spring Harbour Laboratory
This course is designed to cover many aspects of biochemistry, including: biomolecules, enzymology, pharmacology, metabolism, and signal transduction as well as the understanding of the structure, function and biosynthesis of glycoproteins and, glycolipids in cells and their applications. An introduction to proteomics, protein structure and function, ligand binding, protein interactions: protein-protein interaction, protein folding and sorting, the role of cell membrane in the life of the cell, hormones, toxicology and neurochemistry will also be discussed. 
John F. Carpenter (Editor), Mark C. Manning (Editor) (2002) Rational Design of Stable Protein Formulations: Theory and Practice (Pharmaceutical Biotechnology). Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers
Jiskoot Wim (Editor), Daan J.A. Crommelin (Editor) (2000 ) Methods for Structural Analysis of Protein Pharmaceuticals (Biotechnology (Arlington, Va.), (Hardcover) AAPS Press
Kristian Mueller dan Katja Arndt . (2006) Protein Engineering Protocols (Methods in Molecular Biology) (Hardcover) 1st edition. Humana Press Inc.,U.S.
Paul Wrede (Editor), Gisbert Schneider (Editor) (1994) Concepts in Protein Engineering and Design: An Introduction.   Walter de Gruyter
  Khudyakov E. (2007 ) Medicinal Protein Engineering (Hardcover) CRC Press Inc

Students are required to undertake a research study for two semesters under a supervision of a lecturer. The research study involves expertise from the Biotechnology programme and Biotechnology Research Institute. At the end of the course, students will be assessed based on the oral presentation and scientific writing of a final dissertation.
Students are required to participate in practical work in any public and private company, industrial factories and scientific research laboratories for 10 consecutive weeks. During the industrial training, students are hoped to gain additional knowledge, experiences and subsequently will equip themselves to the working life after graduation. Marks will be given based on their personal, academic as well as a report written at the end of the industrial training.  



updated on 2009-08-07 11:16:17 by admin