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This is an introductory course on environmental law principals which is being practiced especially in Malaysia. The course emphasizes a study of laws and regulations that covers the environmental issues, water and mineral resources, land and soil, including biodiversity resources management. Laws and regulations involved including Environmental Quality Act 1974, Local Government Act 1976, National Land Code 1965 and Wildlife Protection Act 1972. Other guidelines, agreements, protocols, forum, conferences and international laws on conservation and protection of the environment will be discussed. Students will also learn the history of environmental management before it is being implemented in Malaysia, as well the development.

Ahmad Ibrahim & Ahilemah Joned. 1998. Sistem Undang-undang di Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur, Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.
Bell, S. & McGillivray, D. 2000. Environmental Law. Edisi ke-5. London: Blackstone Press. Malaysia. 1999.
Akta Kualiti Alam Sekeliling. 1974, (Akta 127) & Peraturan-Peraturan dan Perintah-Perintah.
Muhamad Awang, Muhamad Nasir Hasan, Zulina Zakaria, Karen Badri, Chong, T. L., Wan Nor Azmin Sulaiman & Mohd. Kamil Yusoff. 2000.
Environmental Management Standarts (ISO 1400): Towards A Sustainable Future. Serdang, Universiti Putra Malaysia. United Nations. 1992. Agenda 21: Programme of Action for Sustainable Development. New York, United Nation.


This course discusses and explore the concept of human health, determinants of health; epidemiology and examine the concept of promoting health within environmental health practices. The environmental health components will be discussed will include communicable disease prevention and control, food quality control and environmental sanitation. This course will also evaluate the roles of various environmental practitioner engaged in data gathering and analysis. Some aspects of health and safety in the working environment will also be discussed towards the end of the course.


Benenson, A.S. (1990) Control of Communicable Diseases in Man. 15th Edition. American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C. ISBN:0875531709

Bryan, F. (1992) Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point Evaluations- A Guide to Identifying  Hazards and Assessing Risks Associated wtih Food Preparation and Storage. World Health Organization, Geneva.

Cheremisinoff, P.N. and Cheremisinoff , N.P. (1997) Advances in Environmental Control Technology: Health and Toxicology -Advances in Environmental Control Technology Series. ISBN: 978-0-88415-386-3Last, J.M. (1995). Public Health and Human Ecology. Appleton & Lange, New YorkTalbot, E.O. & Craun, G.F. 1995. An Introduction to Environmental Epidemiology. CRC Press, Boca Raton.


Environmental Toxicology is dealing with most aspects from the molecular to the ecosystem level. Basic metabolic, physiological, and pharmacological concepts are used to explain the fate of toxic chemicals in the environment and organism. It also discuss endocrine disrupting chemicals, risk assessment and the precautionary principle. It deals with specific environmental problems – air, water and land pollution. Assessment of environmental effects of chemicals on the organism also tested and it involves not only toxicity testing of single chemicals but also interactive effects (including synergistic ones) as well as genotoxicity, mutagenicity and immunotoxicity testing and on risk assessment, rehabilitation and regulatory toxicology. On the other hand, the remediation techniques and practices to minimize the environmental effects of chemicals and for the implementation of the corresponding principles in the planning of environmental policy and decision making will be discussed.


Cockerhan, L.G & Shane, B. S. (eds), 1994. Basic Environmental Toxicology, CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Cronin, Mark T. D. & Livingstones D., 1004. Predicting Chemical Toxicity and Fate, CRC Press, Boca Raton. United Nation.

Shaw, I. C. & Chadwick, J., 1999. Principles of Environmental Toxicology. Taylor & Francis. Philadelphia.


This course discusses the types of aquifer and their medium characteristics. It includes unconfined aquifer, confined aquifer, aquitard and aquifuge. The categories of pollutants, groundwater flow, transportation processes of pollutants, identification and indicator of pollution will be described. The sources of pollutants and pollution control strategy will be discussed. Examples of groundwater pollution cases, its sources and implications to the environment will be presented in detail.


Domenico, P.A. and Schwartz, F.W., 1998. Physical and chemical hydrogeology. John Wiley & Sons. New York.
Freeze, R.A. and Cherry, J.A., 1979. Groundwater. Prentice-Hall. Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Mays, L.W., 2001. Water resources engineering. John Wiley & Sons. New York.

Schwartz, F.W. and Zhang, H., 2003. Fundamentals of groundwater. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Todd, D.K., 1980. Groundwater hydrology, 2nd Edition. John Wiley & Sons. New York.



updated on 2009-09-28 09:33:19 by admin