**SF10101 PHYSICS ELECTRONICS PRACTICAL I**

This practical course prepares several experiments to be performed by every Physics With Electronics Program’s student. These experiments are purposely done to give the exposure
to the students on the electrical and magnetic equipments. Among the experiments are resistor identification, experiments on series and parallel circuits, experiments using electronics
basic devices such as capasitor, circuit board, multimeter, osiloscope and so on. On the magnetic experiments, among the experiments are identification and testing of magnetic
materials, prepare/develop own magnetic material. Others are to identify whether magnet can exist with single polarity and also to study magnet pattern produced by several magnetic
materials.

**References**

Bueche, F.J. dan Jerde, D.A. 1995. Principles of Physics, 5th ed. McGraw Hill, New York.

Giambattista, A., Richardson, B.M. and Ricardson, R.C. 2004. College Physics. 1st ed. McGraw Hill. New York.

Halliday, D., Resnick, R. dan Walker, J. 2001. Fundamentals of Physics . John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Kirkup, L. 1994. Experimental Methods: An Introduction To the Analysis and Presentation of Data. John Wiley and Son.

Nor Aini Naim, Muhammad Shaiedi Ishak, Vijayakumar, V. Thum Ann, Keng, K.C., Nahbibi Rahmatullah, Faezah Jasman, Mohd Zaki Mas’ud dan Mohd Rahimi Yusoff,2005. Experimental
Physics, 2nd Edition. Pearson, Prentice Hall.

**SF10201 PHYSICS ELECTRONICS PRACTICAL II**

This practical course is actually a part of Basic Electronics theory course. It is to expose the students to the laboratory techniques and advanced concept of electronics.
Practical are started with circuits, circuit laws and analysis of resistors circuits. Then, followed by RL and RC circuits. Alternating current circuits are started with introduction of
signal forms, compleks numbers, and phasor and impedans diagrams. Then, practicals continued with ac circuit analysis, includsing RLC and simple filters. Semiconductor devices are also
introduced with the experiments on pn junction concept, rectifier diodes, zener diodes, BJT and FET with related testing circuits.

**References**

Gates, E. D. 2001. Introduction to Electronics. 4th ed. Thomson Learning.

Grob, B. & Schultz, M. E. 2003. Basic Electronics. 9th ed. McGraw-Hill.

Meade, R. L. & Diffenderfer, R. 2005. Foundations of Electronics: Circuits and Devices. (Conventional Flow Version). Thomson Learning.

Neamen, D. A. 2001. Electronic Circuit Analysis and Design. 2nd ed. McGraw Hill.

Pugh, F. & Ponick, W. 1997. Experiments in Basic Electronics. 4th ed. McGraw-Hill.

**SF10303 PHYSICS I (MECHANICS)**

The purpose of this course is to introduce to students some fundamental concepts of Physics. This course will discuss the topics as follows: Unit and dimension. Kinematics in 1and
2 dimension. Vectors in physicss. Newton’s Laws and applications. Work and energy. Conservation of energy and momentum. Collision in 1 and 2 dimension. Simple harmonic motion. Universal
gravitation, gravitational force. Motion of planets. Extended systems, moment of inertia. Angular momentum, rotational dynamics, compound pendulum. Rigid body, equilibrium, static.
Elasticity, stress, strain and torsion. Young's modulus, shear modulus and bulk modulus. Bending of beams, bending moment. Compression of fluids, surface tension, hydrostatics,
viscosity. Hydrodynamics, continuity equation, Bernoulli equation, Poiseuille equation. Turbulent flow, sedimentation and drag.

**
References**

Giancoli D. C., 2000, Physics for Scientists and Engineers, 3rd ed., Prentice Hall.

Halliday, Resnick & Walker, 2005, Fundamentals of Physics, 7th ed., John Wiley & Sons.

Serway, R.A. & Jewett, J.W. 2002. Principles of Physics. 3rd Ed., Brooks/Cole,

Young H D.& Freedman R. A., 2003, University Physics, 11th ed., Addison-Wesley.

**SF10403 MATHEMATICAL METHOD IN PHYSICS I**

This course is to strengthen student’s mathematic skills. Topics will include the following. Complex Analysis: Funtions of a complex variable - complex functions. Differentiation
of complex functions; Cauchy-Riemann conditions, analytic functions, singular points, power series of analytic functions, Taylor series.

Complex Integration: Cauchy integral theorem. Cauchy integral formula. Zeroes and singularities. Laurent series. Residue theorem.

Differential Equations: Ordinary linear differential equations of first order and methods of solutions. Ordinary linear differential equations of second order – homogeneons and
non-homogeneous equations and methods of solution.

Partial differential equations: Sturm – Lionrille boundary value problems. Wave equation, Heat equation, Laplace equation - solution by separation of variables.

**
References**

Arfken, G.B. and Weber H.J., 2000. Mathematical Methods for Physicists (4th. Ed.), Academic Press.

Chow, T. L. 2000. Mathematical Methods for Physicists. Cambridge University Press.

Kreyszig, E. 1985. Advanced Engineering Mathematics (8th ed). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Rade, L. & Westergren, B. 1999. Mathematics handbook for science and engineering. New York: Springer.

Sadri Hassani. 1999. Mathematical physics: a modern introduction to its foundations. New York: Springer.

**SF10503 PHYSICS II (ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM)**

This course will discuss various topics of theories and applications of electricity and magnetic phenomena. The students will learn theories and applications of electricity such
as static charges, electric forces, electric field, electric potential, capacitor and dielectric, current and resistor, Ohm’s law, Kirrchoff’s law and direct current circuits. This
course will also exposed the students to theories and applications of magnetism such as magnetic field, magnetic forces, Bio Savart’s law, Gauss law, electric motion force and circuit,
Ampere’s law, Faraday induction’s law, inductance, properties of magnetic matter, electromagnetic oscillation, alternative current and Maxwell’ equations.

**
References**

Resnick, R. dan Halliday, D. 1992. Fizik 2 (translated by Asiah Salleh), DBP, Kuala Lumpur.

Bueche, F. J. dan Jerde, D. A. 1995(Ed. 6) Principles of Physics, McGraw Hill, New York.

Lorrain, P. and Corson, D.R. 1979, Electromagnetism: Principles and Applications. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York.

Beiser, A. 1992 Konsep Fizika Modern (translated by The Houw Liong). Erlangga, Jakarta.

Bauche, F. J. 1986. Introductions to Physics For Scientists and Engineering. McGraw-Hill, New York.

**SF10603 PHYSICS III (WAVE AND OPTICS)**

This course is to enhance students understanding in fundamental of physics. The first part of the course is the discussion on the optics wave properties. This includes the
discussion on the characteristics and properties of light wave such as reflection, refraction, superposition, interference, diffraction and polarization. Some of its applications are
discussed in lenses and optical devices.

**References**

Halliday, D., Resnick, R. & Walter, J. 2003. Fundamentals of Physics (6th ed). Danvers: John Wiley & Sons,

Inc.

Jedol Dayou. 2001. Pengenalan Kepada Fizik Cahaya. Kota Kinabalu: Penerbitan UMS.

Giancoli, D. C. 2000. Physics for Scientists and Engineers (3rd ed). London: Prentice Hall International.

Bueche, F. J. & Jerde, D. A. 1995. Principles of Physics (6th ed). New York: McGraw Hill.

Crummett, W. P. & Western, A. B. 1994. University Physics. WBC. USA.

Bauche, F. J. 1986. Introductions to Physics for Scientists and Engineering. McGraw Hill, New York.

**SF10803 MODERN PHYSICS**

Modern Physics will begin with discussions on relativity theory and how its changes human perceptions of its surroundings in the early 20th century. Apart from that, early
development of atomic model and theory will also be discussed. Last part of the course is the discussion on radioactivity and it’s handling safety characteristics.

**References.
**Halliday, D., Resnick, R. & Walter, J. 2003. Fundamentals of Physics (6th ed). Danvers: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Jedol Dayou. 2001. Pengenalan Kepada Fizik Cahaya. Kota Kinabalu: Penerbitan UMS.

Giancoli, D. C. 2000. Physics for Scientists and Engineers (3rd ed). London: Prentice Hall International.

Bueche, F. J. & Jerde, D. A. 1995. Principles of Physics (6th ed). New York: McGraw Hill.

Crummett, W. P. & Western, A. B. 1994. University Physics. WBC. USA.

Bauche, F. J. 1986. Introductions to Physics for Scientists and Engineering. McGraw Hill, New York.

**SF20101 PHYSICS ELECTRONICS PRACTICAL III**

In this practical course, several experiments must be done by every physics with electronics student. The objective of this course is to give exposure in basic measurement and
experiment in physics field to the students. The experiments to be conducted are basic material measurement, simple harmonic movement, capacitor charging through resistance and etc.

**References**

Bueche, F.J. dan Jerde, D.A. 1995. Principles of Physics, 5th ed. McGraw Hill, New York.

Giambattista, A., Richardson, B.M. and Ricardson, R.C. 2004. College Physics. 1st ed. McGraw Hill. New York.

Halliday, D., Resnick, R. dan Walker, J. 2001. Fundamentals of Physics. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Kirkup, L. 1994. Experimental Methods: An Introduction To the Analysis and Presentation of Data. John Wiley and Son.

Nor Aini Naim, Muhammad Shaiedi Ishak, Vijayakumar, V. Thum Ann, Keng, K.C., Nahbibi Rahmatullah, Faezah Jasman, Mohd Zaki Mas’ud dan Mohd Rahimi Yusoff,2005. Experimental
Physics, 2nd Edition. Pearson, Prentice Hall

**SF20201 PHYSICS ELECTRONICS PRACTICAL IV**

The concept of this practical is electronics workshop. This practical course will emphasis on using electronics equipments such as oscilloscope, multimeter, power generator and
function generator. Students also will be directed to design and produce circuits for selected electronics systems. During the experiment, students will design and test the circuits by
using protoboard and PCB. Mini projects that will be held are: dc power generator, amplifier circuit and remote control system.

**
References**

Grob, B. & Schultz, M. E. 2003. Basic Electronics. 9th ed. McGraw-Hill.

Herman, S. L. 2000. Electronics for Electricians. 4th ed. Thomson Learning.

Loyd, D. H. 2002. Physics Laboratory Manual, 2nd ed.. Thomson Learning.

Meade, R. L. & Diffenderfer, R. 2005. Foundations of Electronics: Circuits and Devices. (Conventional Flow Version). Thomson Learning.

Neamen, D. A. 2001. Electronic Circuit Analysis and Design. 2nd ed. McGraw Hill.

Petruzelis, T. 1997. Optoelectronics, fiber optics and laser Cookbook. McGraw Hill.

**SF20303 MATHEMATICAL METHOD IN PHYSICS II**

This course is to further strengthen student’s mathematic skills. The topics will include the following. Vector algebra; definitions, addditon, subtraction of vectors, dot
products and cross products of vectors, scalar and vector fields, geometric representation, algebraic representation, transformation; unit vectors.

Vector calculus; scalar differentiation, differentiation with respect to time. Gradient, divergence and curl of a vector. Physical examples.

Consecutive differentiation, Laplacean, D'Alembertian. Physical examples.

Vector integration; line, surface and volume integrals. Gauss Theorem. Stokes Theorem.

Application in Physics; potential theory, scalar potential, vector potential.

Coordinate Systems; Cartesian, curvilinear systems, cylindrical, spherical. Differentiation and integration. Application in Physics, position, velocity and acceleration, wave
equation for electric field and magnetic. Integral transforms: general properties. Laplace transform: general properties, applications in physical problems. Fourier transform: general
properties, applications in physical problems.

Special functions/equations: Gamma, Bessel, Legendre and Associated Legendere.

Fourier Analysis: expansion of functions in terms of sine and cosine, properties, physical examples.

**
References
**Arfken, G.B. and Weber H.J., 2000. Mathematical Methods for Physicists (4th. Ed.), Academic Press.

Chow, T. L. 2000. Mathematical Methods for Physicists. Cambridge University Press.

Kreyszig, E. 1985. Advanced Engineering Mathematics (8th ed). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Sadri Hassani. 1999. Mathematical physics: a modern introduction to its foundations. New York: Springer.

Spiegel, M.R. 1981. Theory and Problems of Vector Analysis and an Introduction to Tensor Analysis, McGraw-Hill, New York.

**SF20403 STATISTICAL PHYSICS**

This course will begin with the discussion on the characteristics of macroscopic and microscopic systems. Then followed by probability concepts and counting of states. Next topics
are the postulate of equal a priori probabilities and microcanonical ensemble and then followed by the definition of absolute temperature and entropy including canonical ensemble and
statistics of ideal quantum gases. The discussions on Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics, Bose-Einstein statistics and Fermi-Dirac statistics. At the end, students will be exposed to the
applications of quantum statistics such as specific heat of solids, black body radiation, conducting electrons in solids.

**References**

Arnold, S. F. 1990 Mathematical Statistics, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.

Bowley R. & Sanchez M. 2002. Introductory Statistical Mechanics (2nd Ed.), Oxford Publications,

Ma, S. K. 1985. Statistical Mechanics, World Scientific, Singapore.

Mandl, F. 1988. Statistical Physics (2nd Ed.), John Wiley.

Reif, F. 1991. Asas-asas Fizik Statistik dan Terma . DBP, Kuala Lumpur.

**SF20503 THERMODYNAMICS PHYSICS**

This course is aimed to provide a complete knowledge for students in physics in solving some particular problems in electronics. This will be started with coordinate equation
state, heat and work, quasi-static process, ideal gas equation, and Carnot’s circuit. Later on, this will be continued on the First and Second Thermodynamic’s laws, entropy principle,
entalphy and energy, Maxwell’s equation, energy equation, heat change, phase changes and critical state. Other topics discussed are canonical coordinate, phase space, ensemble,
Liouvilles’ theorem, microcanonic, statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, classical ideal gas, up and down energy, quantum statistics, matrix density, ideal gas quantum and quantum
distribution functions.

**References**

Anderson, E, 1994. Thermodynamics. Int. Thompson Publishing, New York.

Arnold, S.F., 1990. Mathematical Statistics. Prentice Hall, New Jersey.

Greiner, W., Neise, L., and Stocker, H., 1994. Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Ma, S.K., 1985. Statistical Mechanics. World Scientific, Singapore.

Reif, F., 1991. Asas-asas Fizik Statistik dan Terma. DBP, Kuala Lumpur.

**SF20603 QUANTUM PHYSICS**

This course is aimed to strengthen the knowledge of students in physics through the discussions of the following topics. Development of Quantum Mechanics: Schrödinger picture and
Heisenberg picture. Schrödinger equation. Wave functions. Probability. Measureable quantities. Operators and expectation values. Stationary state. Eigen function and Eigen value.
Particle in a box. Harmonic oscillator. Barrier penetration. Central field problem. Hydrogen atom. Students will be exposed on some application of quantum theory on the electronics
circuit.

**References**

Gasiorowitz S., 2003 Quantum Physics, 3rd ed., John Wiley, New York.

Eisberg, R.M. & Resnick, R. 1974. Quantum Physics of Atoms, Molecules, Solids, Nuclei and Particles. Wiley.

Ferry, D.K. 1995. Quantum Mechanics : An Introduction for Device Physicist and Electrical Engineers. Institute of Physics Publishing, New York.

Griffiths, D.J., 2005. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics, 2ed, Prentice Hall.

McMahon, D. 2006. Quantum Mechanics, McGraw Hill.

**SF20703 PHYSICS METHODS FOR EXPERIMENTS AND MEASUREMENTS**

This course allows students to understand measurement problems in electronics from physics’ view when they working in the final year project. Topics will be provided are data
acquisition method, hardware and software in measurements and experiments, experimental measurements of temperature, pressure, load, long distance & precaution and sensor. To
simplify the work, these problems will be solved using computers, some topics of computational and automatic measurements, data processing including package, MathCAD, MATLAB, Lotus-123
and graphic will also be given.

**References**

Lesurf, J.C.G., 1995. Information and Measurement. Institute of Physics Publishing, London.

Petley, B.W., 1988. The Fundamental Physical Constants and the Frontier of Measurements. Institute of Physics Publishing, London.

Silvermann, G. 1995. Modern Instrumentation : A computer Approach, Institute of Physics. Publishing, London.

Sears, F.W., and Zemansky, M.W., 1982. Fisika untuk Universitas 1, Bina Cipta, Jakarta.

Young, H.D., and Freedman, R.A., 1996. University Physics. Addison Wesley, New York.

**SF20803 SOLID STATE PHYSICS**

This course is aimed to introduce any phenomena occurred in solid state. This will be started with an introduction to bonding types in solid state such as covalent bond, hydrogen,
van der Waals and ionic. Later on, discussions will be continued on crystal structures, symmetrical points, crystal classifications and simple structures and also refraction of periodic
structures. Dynamic properties of crystal and properties of heat in crystal will also be given. Principle of free electron, band structure in solid state, electron motion in magnetism
and mobility phenomenon describe a real explanation in solid state followed by superconductors. Dielectric properties in solid state, semiconductor solid state and superconductor will
also be discussed.

**References**

Chamber, R.G., 1990. Electrons in Metals and Semiconductors. Chapman and Hall, London.

Dan Wei, 2008. Solid State Physics. CENGAGE Learning, Singapore.

Ibach, H and Luth, H., 1995. Solid State Physics (2nd ed.). Springer, Berlin.

Kittle, C., 1990. Introduction to Solid State Physics (5th ed.). Addison Wesley, New York.

Yahaya, M, 1989. Pengenalan Fizik Keadaan Pepejal. DBP, Kuala Lumpur.

**SF21003 COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS AND MODELLING**

This course introduces computer as a tool to broad and enhance understanding in physics by increasing range of mathematical calculations that can be conveniently performed.
Fundamentals and programming concept in C is introduced such as variables, operator, library functions, data input and output, control statements etc. Later, C programming is used in
computing problems in physics such as data analysis, data acquisition, wave equation, diffusion equation, ordinary differential equation, Monte Carlo Method and Ising Model.

**References**

Darnell, P.A. & Margolis, P.E. 1988 Software Engineering in C, Springer-Verlag, New York NY.

Garcia, A.L. 2000 Numerical Methods for Physicist, 2nd Edition, Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River NJ.

Giordano, N.J. 1997 Computational Physics, Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River NJ

Potter, D. 1973 Computational Physics ,Wiley, New York.

Stroustrup, B. 1991 The C++ Programming Language, 2nd Edition, Addison-Wesley, Reading MA

**SF30103 PROJECT I / SF30206 PROJECT II
** Research project that supervised by a lecturer that will be done in 2 academic sessions. This course will include proposal and research results presentation, thesis;
that include literature review, methodology, result and discussion.

**SF30303 INSTRUMENTATION PHYSICS
**This course begins with the discussion of instrumentation in industry and laboratory (introduction, survey of instrumentation and types). Other topics to be discussed are
transducers (principles, types and applications, for example, pressure, thermal, optical, velocity) and signal conditioning. Introduction to control and feedback with respect to
equipment/process. Process control. stability. Noise in instrumentation. Instrumentation reliability. Pressure and vacuum, pumps and gauges. Microscopy: Optical (different modes, e.g.
bright/dark field, polarizing, interference, and applications). Electron microscopy and EDX (functions and applications). Spectrophotometer (principles, types and applications for IR,
UV and visible). Nuclear radiation detectors and simple systems (units, common detectors, doserate meters).

**References**

Bartelt, T, 2002, Industrial Control Electronics: Devices, Systems & Applications, 2nd Edition, Delmar Thompson Learning, New York.

Humpries, J. T, 1993, Industrial Electronics, 4th Edition, Delmar Publisher, New York.

Johnson, C.D. 1993. Process Control Instrumentation Technology (4th Ed.), Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.

Rangan C s, Sarma G R, Mani V S V, 1997, Instrumentation: Devices & Systems, 2nd Edition, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi.

Rehg, J A., 2006. Industrial Electronics, Pearson Prentice Hall, New Jersey.

**SF30403 INDUSTRIAL TRAINING**

Students will be exposed in job environment in industry or research field at least in 10 weeks that will be supervised by a lecturer. This training will be evaluated and the
students have to prepare a report about the training after finishing the 10 weeks of Industrial Training.

**SF30503 LASER PHYSICS
**This course is aimed to introduce the properties of laser, basic principles of laser and its applications. Topics that will be provided are emission and absorption,
Einstein’s relation, population inversion and pumping threshold conditions. Laser modes and classes of lasers are discussed in this course too. The applications of laser in scientific,
industrial, medical and military are introduced too.

**References**

Orazio Svelto (Editor), C. Hanna (Translater). 1998. Principles of Laser.

Latimer, I., Hawkers, J. F. B. Lasers, Theory and Practice. Prentice Hall.

Wilson, J. & Hawkes, J. F. B. 1987. Lasers Principles and Applications. Prentice Hall.

Wilson, J. & Hawkes, J. F. B. 1983. Optoelectronics: An Introduction. Prentice Hall.

**SF30703 X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY**

Crystal structure, lattice and unit cell, Bravais lattice, symmetry and space groups, direction and crystal plane, x-ray diffraction, Bragg’s law, reciprocal lattice, Edwald
sphere and data group, basics crystallography, x-ray diffraction equipment, phase technique and structure factor.

**References**

Buerger, M.J. 1942. X-Ray Crystallography. John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York.

Azaroff, L.V. 1986. Elements of X-ray Crystallography. McGraw- Hill Book Company

Phillips, F.C. 1971. An Introduction To Crystallography, 4th Edition.Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh.

Verma, A.R. & Shivastava, O.N. 1982. Crystallography for solid state Physics. New York, Wiley

Hahn, T. (Editor).1992. International Tables for Crystallography, Vol. A: Space Group Symmetry. Kluwer Academic Publisher, Dordrecht.

**SF30903 NOISE AND VIBRATION**

Noise and vibration is design to broaden student knowledge in physics. This is because noise and vibration are strongly related to sound, and sound is an important element in
everyday life especially in communicating to each other. The content of the course is partially to introduce sound as a wave. Wave characteristics and behaviors of sound will be
discussed includes how does sound produces and travels. Sound measurement will also be discussed. Discussion will proceed on vibration as a source of sound. The importance of research
in sound is also covered in this course. Toward the end, a model of a vibrating structure and the control method will be introduced.

**
References**

Beards, C. F 1995. Engineering Vibration Analysis with Application to Control Systems. Edward Arnold, London.

Fuller C. R., Elliott, S. J. & Nelson, P R 1997. Active Control of Vibration. Academic Press, London. ISBN: 0122691414.

Pian, H. J. 1993. The Physics of Vibrations and Waves. Wiley, Chicster

Steidel, R. F 1989. Introduction to Mechanical Vibration (3rd ed). John Wiley & Son. ISBN: 0471845450.

Thomson, W T 1999. Theory of Vibration With Application (4th ed). Stanley Thones Pub Ltd. ISBN: 0412546205

**SF31103 NUCLEAR PHYSICS**

This course is intent to be an introduction to the basic concepts of nuclear physics. This course will discuss the basic properties of nuclei and nuclear stability and decay. The
main models explaining the nuclear structure will be presented and, time permitting, it will review the main the various types of nuclear reactions that are used in the study of nuclear
structure and reaction mechanism, Nuclear Structure and Nuclear Reactions.

**References
** Bransden B.H., & Joachain C.J., , 2003, Physics of Atoms and Molecules, Pearson, New York.

Krane, Kenneth S., 1987. Introductory Nuclear Physics, , John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.

Lilley J.S.,. 2001. Nuclear Physics: Principles and Applications, John Wiley, New York.

Samuel S. M. & Wong, 1999. Introductory Nuclear Physics, 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.

**SE10203 BASIC ELECTRONICS**

This course is designed to convey the basic knowledge of electronics by application approach where lecture and laboratory work are joined together. The course will begin with
circuit basic, laws of circuit, Law of Ohm and resistance circuit analysis. This followed by transient RL and RC circuits. Alternating current circuit begins by identifying sign forms,
complex number, and phasor and impedance figures. This followed by alternating current circuit analysis including RLC circuits and simple filters. Power in alternating current is also
emphasised. Discussion on devices such as vacuum tube and semiconductor. Semiconductor devices will cover the concept of pn junction, pn diodes, Zener diode, varactor, thyristor, and
theirs circuit. Optoelectronic devices base on semiconductor are also covered such as light emitting diode, photo detector, solar cell, basic transistor, its bias and configuration.
Emphasis is also given to simple amplifier and properties of amplifier such as multiple and band width. In the part of electronic digital, aspects such as Boolean mathematics and
related theorems, logic gates, simple combination of logic circuits will be discussed. Exercise to construct logic circuit will be conducted. In electrical power aspect, emphasis will
given in the area of how power is generated and distributed in the form of one phase and three phase. Electrical connection, including earthing, shielding and electrostatics effect are
also discussed. The discussion will involve the calculation of resistive power, reactive power and power factor. The last aspect of discussion will cover the supplier of direct current
(dc) power from alternating current (ac) source.

**References**

Close, K.J and Yarwood, J. 1979. Experimental Electronics for Students. Chapman and Hall, London.

Crecraft, D.I., Gorham, D.A. and Sparkes, J.J. 1992. Electronics. Chapman and Hall, London.

Hambley, A.R, 1997. Electrical Engineering: Principles and Application. Prentice Hall, New York.

Hughes, E. 1955. Electrical Technology. 7th Edition, Longman.

Smith, R.J. 1985. Electronics: Circuits, Devices and Systems. John Wiley.

**SE20103 DIGITAL ELECTRONICS
**This course discusses topics related to digital electronics such as advance flip-flop, register, memory, interval, simultaneous numerator, three conditions buffer, open
collector output, totem-pole, data selector and multiplexes, decoder, RAM, ROM, PROM, seven segments display and matrices monitor. Digital circuits are introduced starting with Boolean
mathematical analysis and usage of Karnaught’s map. Continuation to flip-flop circuit and interval of the previous course will be given more deeply to the flip-flop circuit and
multivibrator, additional logical circuit, lists, numeric, memory, etc. Simple chips will be also introduced.

**References**

Tocci, R.J., Widmer, N. S. & Moss, G. L. 2004. Digital Systems. 9th ed. Prentice Hall.

Tokheim, R. L. 2003. Digital Electronics: Principles and Applications. 6th ed. McGraw Hll.

Cooks. 1995. Introduction to Digital Electronics. Prentice Hall.

Frenzel, L.E. 2000. Communication Electronics: Principles and Applications. 3rd ed. McGraw Hill.

Sklar, B. 1994. Digital Communication, Fundamental and Application. Prentice Hall.

**SE20203 ADVANCED ELECTRONICS
**This course is a continuation course of SF 1043 aimed to provide understanding electronics more deeply, starting with transistor amplifiers including design and load line
analyses and analysis based on a low signal and low frequency. Negative and positive feedback effects will also be discussed. Oscillation and classification of amplifiers are
emphasized. Classifications of amplifiers and power amplifier, operational amplifier will be discussed into wide applications and also for FET amplifier. Topic on high frequency
amplifier based on GaAs such as Gunn diode, Schottky device, etc are emphasized. Other devices and system emphasized are display technology CRT, LED, plasma, sensor devices, induction
CCD, magnetic memory and CD.

**References**

Burhanuddin Yeop Majlis, 1992. Peranti and Litar Analog, DBP.

Smith, R.J, 1995. Electronics : Circuits, Devices and Systems. 7th ed., John Wiley.

Schuler C A, 2000. Electronics. Principle and Applications, McGraw Hill, New York.

Tocci, R.J., 1992. Digital System. Prentice Hall., New York.

Hambley, A.R, 1997. Electronics. Prentice Hall, New York.

**SE30103 SEMICONDUCTOR PHYSICS**

This course will provide information on fundamental theories of semiconductor physics such as electron energy level, conductivity, intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors. The
students will be further exposed to carriers conduction process such carrier diffusion, generations and recombinations with special emphasis on silicon (Si) and gallium arsenide (GaAs).
The physics and characteristic of major semiconductor devices will be discussed such as p-n junctions which is the basic building block of semiconductor devices, bipolar junction
transistor and field effect devices.

**References
**Fortino, A.G. 1989. Asas Teknologi Litar Bersepadu (Terjemahan), DBP, Kuala Lumpur.

Grovener, C.R.M. 1987. Materials for Semiconductor Devices. Institute of Metals, London.

Jiles, D. 1994. Introduction to the Electronics Properties of Materials. Chapman and Hall, London.

Streetman, B. G. and Banerjee, S. 2000. Solid State Electronic Devices. Prentice Hall, New Jersey.

Sze, S.M. 2002. Semiconductor Devices. Physics and Technology 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

**SE30203 SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY**

This course is to details the technology in microchip fabrication for semiconductor industry. The topics are as follows. Growth of semiconductor ingot, preparation and
characterization of wafer, oxidation and lithography process. Diffusion of dopant and creation of junction. Metallization. Characterization of junction, example junction depth, etc.
Thin film techniques, integrated circuit development, bonding and packaging.

**References
**Fortino, A.G. 1989. Asas Teknologi Litar Bersepadu (Terjemahan), DBP, Kuala Lumpur.

Gise, P. & Blanchard, R. 1986. Modern Semiconductor Fabrication Technology, Prentice Hall, New York.

May, G.S. & Sze, S.M., Fundamentals of Semiconductor Fabrication, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2004.

Sze, S.M. 2002. Semiconductor Devices. Physics and Technology 2nd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Xiao H, 2000, Introduction to Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology, Prentice Hall, New York.

**SE30303 COMMUNICATION ELECTRONICS
**This course will cover communication principles, propagation, serial spectrum analysis and Fourier, linear network response and wave shape. Other communication technology
topics of discussion are signal introductory, random noise, spectrum density, white noise, signal detection in noise, matching filter, modulation, limiter, systems comparison, width
band necessity, signal ratio, quantized noise, line communication system, broadcasting, wave width link, satellite, radar and sonar, and sea bottom cable.

**References**

Tocci, R.J., Widmer, N. S. & Moss, G. L. 2004. Digital Systems. 9th ed. Prentice Hall.

Tokheim, R. L. 2003. Digital Electronics: Principles and Applications. 6th ed. McGraw Hll.

Cooks. 1995. Introduction to Digital Electronics. Prentice Hall.

Frenzel, L.E. 2000. Communication Electronics: Principles and Applications. 3rd ed. McGraw Hill.

Forouzan, B.A. 2003. Data Communications and Networking. 3rd ed. McGraw Hill.

**SE30403 OPTOELECTRONICS**

The course begins with the introduction of light sources and light propagation followed by mechanism of light production from sources including light diode, combine lamp of p-n
GaAs, InP and GaP. Optics characteristics such as disturbance, and light refraction, coherent optics and polarisation, and light transmission and absorption. Optic detection method
including interaction between light and matter, non-linear optic, fiber optics and optics signal processing are also discussed. In the laser part, discussion will include the
definition, application, and types of laser including combination p-n and spectrum formed by laser. Several laser application will also be discussed such as in communication and medical
devices as well as in security. Solar cell will be discussed at the end of the course which will include the basic properties, spectrum response, recombination current, serial
resistance and radiation effect.

**References**

Kasap, S. O. 2001. Optoelectronics and Photonics. Pearson International, New Jersey.

Rogers, A.J. 1995. Essentials of Optoelectronics. Chapman and Hall, London.

Saleh A. & Teich M.C, 1995. Fundamentals of Photonics. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Wilson, J. & Hawkes, J. F. B. 1983. Optoelectronics: An Introduction. Prentice Hall.

Yariv A., 1996. Optical Electronics and Modern Communications. Oxford.

**SE30602 SPECIAL TOPICS IN PHYSICS ELECTRONICS**

Selected topics in physics and electronics will exposed to students in the form of theory and current technology including research findings. Students also required to produce
written report and make presentation for the chosen topics for assessment. Scope and field of the topics will depend on the lecturers expertise.

**SE30803 MICROPROCESSOR**

This course will discuss on the design and operation of the microprocessor. The topics to be discussed are as follows. Design of microcomputer systems: history and development,
architecture, sequential design, and organization. Design of microprocessor systems: internal bus structure, instruction and machine cycles, and instructions flow in CPU. Functions of
CPU: ALU, decoder, program counter, instructions register, address data and control registers. Data transfer and timing diagrams. Microprocessor instructions, and assembly language
programming. Assemblers and cross assemblers. Interrupts: software and hardware. Interface: memory, input and output port ADC, DAC. Series and parallel ports: RS232, UART/DUART, PIT,
buffer, and other peripheral devices. Introduction to current microprocessor systems.

**References**

Antonakos, J.L., 1998, 68000 Microprocessor Hardware & Software Principles & Applications, Prentice Hall. ISBN: 0023036036.

Clements, A., 1997, Microprocessor Systems Design: 68000 Family Hardware, Software, and Interfacing, Brooks Cole, 3 edition, ISBN: 0534948227.

Mackenzie, I. S., 1995, The 68000 Microprocessor, Prentice-Hall. ISBN: 002373654

**SE31003 ELECTROACOUSTICS
**This course discusses about process involves in converting signal from sound wave to electrical signal and vice versa, that is from electrical signal to sound wave. There
are two important elements to be stressed in this course, which are the application of acoustical physics which includes the theory of sound wave and how it can be used in detection of
sound and application of electronics in sound signal detection. Contents of the course are includes discussion on transducers to convert sound signal to electrical signal such as
microphones and their types; discussion on transducers to convert electrical signal to sound signal such as loudspeakers and their types. In general, this course is a combination of
application between physics knowledge in sound and electronics, which is strongly related to instrumentation.

**References**

Leach, W. M. 1999. Introduction to Electroacoustics and Audio Amplifier Design, 2nd Ed., Kandell/Hunt Publishing Company. ISBN: 0787260932.

Eargle, J. M. 1996. Loudspeaker handbook. Norwell, Massachusetts: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Eargle, J. M. 1994. Electroacoustical reference data. New York: Van Nostrad Reinhold

Hunt F V 1982. Electroacoustics. Acoustical Society of American Publication. ISBN: 088318-40-X

Gayford, M. L. 1970. Electroacoutics: microphone, earphones and loudspeakers. ISBN: 0408000260

**SE31203 DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING**

This course is to expose on processing methods of digital signal such as from analogue to digital, input and output, noise, filtration, various forms of discrete time signal and
sequence system. The course is also covering several types of Fourier’s transform and Z transform, their applications and importance examples in signal processing. Further, these will
be followed by advanced understanding of Fourier’s transform using computer package and numerical analysis solutions for input-output.

**References
**Burke, M. 1995. Image Acquisition. Chapman and Hall, London.

Karl, J.H. 1989. An Introduction to Digital Signal Processing. Academic Press.

Ludemen, L.C. 1986. Fundamentals of Digital Signal Processing. Harper & Row.

Murray-Smith, D.J. 1995. Continuous System Simulation. Chapman and Hall, London.

Orfannidis, S.J. 1996. Introduction to Signal Processing. Prentice-Hall Signal Processing Series.